For me, all doctrines and dogma are “fair game” and worth critical examinination. A faith that is not able to withstand questions is an antique to be admired, not a faith that dares to walk and encounter the world with us. The atonement, by virtue of its function in faith and theology, cannot be an antique! It must be an idea that we carry with us…even when we are not sure what we are carrying or how it “works.” So I wish to continue thinking atonement under a different rubric than my last post: the rubrics of sacrifice or relationship.
The old line on atonement theory/theology is that Jesus had to die to “atone” for our sins…and because of this act God is now able to be in relationship with the world, his anger being subdued by Jesus’ blood. If you’ll revisit my previous post, I outline this in greater detail.
Most Christians would gladly agree with this simple statement of faith and the Catholic Church re-acts this very idea each time it performs mass and sanctifies the host. But can relationship and sacrifice both be equal ends leading to the same goal of salvation or do they occupy different ends and different goals? Is God primarily interested in being appeased or being in relationship? Can both sacrifice and relationship be the goal of God killing Jesus (this last phrase will make more sense a bit further down) or does a blind embrace of a satisfaction theory of the atonement (and also its penal substitution relative) possibly contradict the at-one-ment that Christians testify in the very act of affirming Christ and him crucified? Can God be both firstly loving yet also firstly burning in anger and does the vision of God cast by the life of Jesus lead us to believe that Jesus would have believed human sacrifice to be God’s answer for saving the world?
If we contend that God had to kill Jesus in order to save the world, then we are saying that relationship with the world is an accident of the substance of Jesus’ death. In other words, Relationship was not God’s primary goal; It is the byproduct of this horrible event of propitiation. First and foremost, God’s honor had to saved and the only way to do this was to make someone else pay the price. We are brought into relationship with God not because God first desires relationality with the world, but because God was first so offended that he had to kill Jesus to pacify his blood lust…and only consequently, as a result of this action, we are then brought into relationship with God…back into that edenic state into which we were first created. So of primary importance is not that God desires to be in relationship with the world. The primary object of importance is that God cannot be offended, and that such offense can only be pacified by blood. If this is not the case, then please explain to me why animal sacrifice (and even human) was so central, not only in Judeo-Christian traditions, but in a myriad of other faiths.
Timothy Gorringe in his book, God’s Just Vengeance: Crime, violence and the rhetoric of salvation, talks about how blood propitiation emerged in Israel, and then by extension, would also be a useful paradigm through which the early Christians interpreted the violence done to Jesus. He writes,
“Propitiatory sacrifices sought to turn away God’s anger. In seeking to understand the bulk of the texts which deal with this form of sacrifice we need to bear in mind that the emphasis on the rites of atonement characteristic of the Pentateuch derives from the period after Exile, which was the most traumatic event in Israel’s history. God had made a covenant with the House of David, and was understood to have made an eternal commitment to Zion. Now Jersualem was destroyed and the Davidic Kingship at an end. What had gone wrong? The answer was that Israel had sinned and was being punished for its sin. In order to avoid another such catastrophe sin had to be avoided, but if it could not be avoided…, then the Priestly writers believed, sacrifice was available as a means of atonement” (p37)
(This is a dense paragraph and requires more attention than I can give it for this topic. Paramount to my thoughts here is the origin of sacrifice and the “why” and “how” of its development. I would strongly encourage you to peruse this book if you don’t have time to read its entirety)
This is the goal of killing Jesus. The world has obviously not avoided sin, so Jesus, who is interpreted as God God’s self in later Christian councils and in the Gospel of John, kills God’s self. This is important because the reason we don’t think about Jesus as a sacrifice of human proportions is because to many of us Jesus is not a human, he was God. And it’s no big deal to us humans when God kills God’s self; its just what we’ve come to expect God to do. It’s as if we give God a pass on human sacrifice because we have lost to history the reality that Jesus was a human. YET, there is no evidence that Jesus was God, this is a category of faith, something that we believe in without any historical veracity… yet there is ample evidence that Jesus existed and he did so as a human being in ancient Palestine, yet the fact that he was human is lost in this debate because to bring up the humanity of Jesus is to raise some heinous questions of God, questions we’d rather not go near.
Jesus has been interpreted as HAVING to die to be a propitiation for the wrong humanity has collectively done against God via the first sin of Adam and Eve. The relationship that creation has with God, as a consequence, is unambiguously perverse. For surely if God were all loving to the degree that he desires relationship above violence, one would think that a God who is inscribed with all the “omni’s” (omnipotent, omnipresent, omniscient) could somehow in his mightiness be able to forgive by tapping into one of his omni-powers and bypass condoning human sacrifice. If God desired relationship with the world, one would think God could accomplish this however God would like, yet if the primary point is not right relationship, but restoring God’s honor, then Divine narcissism precedes Divine love…and the primary point is not a relationship, but punishment and incarnate hubris prior to any relationship. But what if this is exactly what God was condemning on the cross?? What if they very thing we think the cross affirms is the very thing God is condemning in this event?? What if the cross means the exact opposite of what it is popularized to mean and THIS was the Gospel intention?? (I will write an entire blog making this argument in the future).
Oddly, this whole mechanical way of viewing salvation seems in stark contradiction to some of the very parables spoken by the very Jesus this very God verily needed to kill: the Beatitudes (see esp Matthew 5. 38-48, wherein Jesus teaches an inverted from of the Mosaic Lex taliones…yet God cannot follow the very teachings of God’ self when it comes to sin?? I’m just asking), the parables of vineyard workers (Matthew 20.1-16), and the prodigal son (Luke 15.11-32) to name a few.
This is precisely Slavoj Zizek’s critiques Christian belief and describes it as having a “perverse core”. In his book, The Puppet and the Dwarf, Zizek describes the current façade of Christianity to be one of a perverse God that circumvents around a perverse core. The perverse core is this: God’s plan of salvation is pointless because God has no one with which to contend but Gods-self. In other words, all the mechanizations of Christian salvation that begin with Adam and Eve (following the usual Christian profession of God’s powers…God presumably “knew” what would happen with the garden debacle) are strange because God has no one to impress but God’s Self. Why would God “have” to do this, or “have” to do that as a part of creation or salvation of a creation he created but then somehow lost? What is it that forces God to “set up” the world in the fashion that God did in order to get himself to forgive the world that he knew would falter? Why even start this game of cat and mouse in which millions of people will make the wrong “choice” or be born into the wrong culture…and thereby be damned?
Some might say that God would do this to be in relationship to some of us, yet, is it really worth creating because of a hedonistic need to have objects to worship yourself when you are quite capable of existing apart from the worship of those said objects, aka, creation? And if it is about having “some”people respond in freedom, if one had never created for the sake of not having millions/billions of people damn themselves by not rightfully worshipping yourself, then those who do respond would have never had a conscious mind to know what they were missing out on precisely because they would have never had bodies within which their minds could function. As a consequence, no harm would be done…And as Jacobus Arminius rightly notes, if God creates with the intention of damning creation, then the very act of creation is a great evil perpetrated by God…and since God is good, God cannot do such evil acts.
For Zizek, If God is God (as countless Christians profess, “God is God and I’m not”), then God can forgive without a blood sacrifice, a human sacrifice, because God is the maker of the rules, not one who must submit to the rules created elsewhere. God can set the parameters… so why parameters of such infinite violence and suffering? So what is the “end game” of atonement? Relationship or blood sacrifice?
I can hear a quick rebuttal, “but God had to perform discipline on humanity for our offenses. It would not be justice if God let ALL of creation off the hook.” Ok, but why? Because the Bible says so? Could it be that our own inherent need for justice, and the relationship of justice and violence, shades the biblical text to such a degree that we have clouded the text with what justice means in anthropomorphic terms rather than in strictly transcendent terms, so that God looks an awful lot like our desires rather than desires that are totally other than ours? * Ludwig Fuerbach has now left the building.* What does God gain by having justice performed on a much inferior, lesser grouping of beings known as human? How is it justice when the plaintiff is infinitely more resourceful than the defendant and indeed the outcome of the trial is immaterial to the plaintiff? And this is Just?? Never mind conspiracy against creation that would surely arise if God has all the “omni’s” yet remains inculpable. Does God possess justice ontologically or does God need justice performed for him, by himself, upon himself, in order to have a part of himself he would not otherwise have if not for the performance of the much needed justice? So now we’re saying the perfect God lacks??
Let’s go further, maybe this is our response, “God had to punish Jesus because to just forgive creation out of mercy apart from violence would show God to be weak and not just.” To whom would God look weak? Who does God have to impress? The Devil? If embarrassment is a category of being, a necessary category that sits along side of dishonor and honor (key concepts in classical atonement theology), then amongst whom is God worried of being embarrassed by not having his honor restored through the punishment of a victim that symbolizes the offense that dishonored him? If God’s primary goal is salvation (healing) and relationship with creation, why would God choose to do so through an endless amount of violence when God can have just as easily chosen to simply forgive the offense without the need for a sacrifice…you know, the same kind of forgiveness that Jesus teaches in the NT?
What I really want us to consider, at a much deeper level than normal, is what our theology of atonement says about our doctrine of God. If we continue to reinforce a substitutionary or satisfaction type theory of atonement, what type of doctrine of God does this reinforce and why are we comfortable with conceiving of God so? Is our doctrine of God, that flows through and from our theology of the atonement, consistent with the Word we see in Christ or do we see something different here…and, like my previous post argued, should we begin to re-articulate a theology of the atonement that seeks to bring people into relationship with God via their theological worldviews rather than cast a vision of the God of Jesus that makes this God a highly suspicious character with a severe personality disorder?
I am sure there are ample hesitations and rebuttals to my thoughts here. This essay is not meant to be a thesis defending my argument at every turn from possible detractors…yet these are initial remarks as I continue to think the atonement during this Lenten season. I am sure that someone out there is wanting to chime in and tell me about “free will” (to name just one objection). I have anticipated some of these remarks and will post a response in my next blog. But I also encourage you, the reader, to respond to where you think I may have gone astray or where you think I may have been frustratingly correct in offering some food for thought on atonement. I will respond and might even write a post specific to your reaction or request…but if I have succeeded in at least making us think about God’s intention: relationship or sacrifice…I would have been pleased. At the end, however, I have no greater desire than to think about God and Christ and to do so honestly as a fellow quester of truth…wherever it may be found.